For a variety of reasons, some articles may require correction after publication. Such reasons can range from small errors through to more serious issues concerning ethics and copyright. In accordance with guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (where applicable), journals on the Ubiquity Partner Network (UPN) handle different kinds of error in the following ways. All articles will have had their proofs checked prior to publication by the author/editor, which should ensure that content and layout errors are not present. Please contact the Journal/Editorial Manager if you believe an article needs correcting.
For very minor but important content or metadata issues, the journal may directly amend the article (both PDF and HTML) if the error is reported within three days of publication. Corrections to the content of the article will follow the normal correction procedure. We reserve the right to decide what constitutes whether a minor issue is important enough to update the source and whether a note or correction article is necessary.
For very small issues that do not directly affect the data or conclusions of the article, a publisher’s note will be posted to the article to highlight error and display the correct text where necessary. (Note: the error will not be corrected in the article itself.) The note will appear immediately after the article abstract/metadata. The wording of the note will be drafted by the journal/publisher and approved by both the editor(s) and author(s). Certain minor corrections may be better highlighted by the journal’s comment or online annotation functionality – the publisher can advise on this where appropriate.
Where an error affects the data being presented, arguments being made, or the conclusions of an article (but not the validity of the findings), or contains incorrect information about the article metadata (author list, title, editor, etc.), a correction article will be posted. Correction articles are used to formally correct the scientific record and to ensure errors in metadata are properly highlighted. Unlike a publisher’s note, correction articles will appear as an article in the journal’s table of contents and will be delivered to indexes in the usual fashion. The original article will be updated to contain a banner that links to the correction to alert readers (Note: the error will not be corrected in the article itself). The wording of the note will be drafted by the publisher and approved by both the editor(s) and author(s). The editor(s) and the publisher, in collaboration with the author, will decide whether the error should be corrected by a note or a correction article.
Retractions are used to remove a published paper from the scientific record. In accordance with the Committee on Publication Ethics’ guidance (adapted from https://doi.org/10.24318/cope.2019.1.4), retractions are used when:
Retractions will be drafted and posted in the same way as correction articles and with the editors’ approval. The original article will remain but readers will be alerted to the retraction via a banner at the top of the article.
In rare circumstances, articles will need to be withdrawn and removed from the journal site itself. This is usually for legal reasons, such as copyright infringement or ethical concerns. The abstract and metadata of the original article will remain, but a banner that links to the retraction note will appear in place of the rest of the contents.
In some cases legal or privacy issues may lead to exceptions to the above processes. Such examples will be dealt with on a case by case basis, with standard processes followed as much as possible.